Characters of Nineteen Eighty- four

by Luigi,  Song Danwen, and  Bai Chao  

Project coordinator: Daniela Ianni

Graphic project: Ernesta Cicini

While reading the book we can noticedthat the characters are dipped into something surreal, and this is clear: a dystopian story is necessarily surreal, because it shows an incongruous, incoherent reality. This reality is incongruous with values that should ensure the life of all individuals, and parity among them.

But it isn’t so important in this discourse, because a dictatorship is not based on these pillars. Anyway we feel something surreal, and it is quite clear in the characters, perhaps. They have something that make us think to a fable: the small numbers of main protagonists, and the moral message of the book, that shows us the ideological failure of dictatorships, only based on power, yen for power and the subordination of human rights, desires and passions to this want of an oligarchy of persons. They are violent in  submitting people’s phisical freedom, but the biggest violence that they commit is the abatement of freedom of thinking, speech, expression and, above all, knowledge, therefore also information: there isn’t freedom without knowledge: FREEDOM IS KNOWLEDGE

Another “fable-like” element is the place where Winston and Julia have their first meeting. This forest seems their heaven, their dream, in which they can enjoy the taste of freedom and love, that are ordinarily denied to them, since “… you could not have pure love or pure lust nowadays. No emotion was pure, because everything was mixed up with fear and hatred. (Nineteen Eighty-four, II.2)

In fact, when Winston goes out of the city with Julia, he immediately calls the forest that they reach “Golden Country”, like a landscape he has sometimes seen in a dream:  “They were standing in the shade of hazel bushes. The sunlight, filtering through innumerable leaves, was still hot on their faces. Winston looked out into the field beyond, and underwent a curious, slow shock of recognition. He knew it by sight. An old, close-bitten pasture, with a footpath wandering across it and a molehill here and there. In the ragged hedge on the opposite side the boughs of the elm trees swayed just perceptibly in the breeze, and their leaves stirred faintly in dense masses like women’s hair. Surely somewhere nearby, but out of sight, there must be a stream with green pools where dace were swimming.”  (Nineteen Eighty-four, II.2)  


Winston Smith  


He’s the main character of the story and the author shows us 1984’s world through his eyes. The eyes of  a rational and innermost man, that knows his ideals: he hates the Party, but he’s also a frightened and doubtful person, almost unhopeful to Party’s authority. This precarious status concerns also the look of Winston: he’s a thin and frail man, and he has a varicose vain on his leg. He’s a minor member of tha Party, and works at the Ministery of Truth faking information of newspapers, according to the demands of Big Brother. Winston is the “human man”, that thinks with his own head and loves freedom. Trying to look into the past (that the Party is clearing from collective historical memory), he develops a sense of mission towards posterity. So he starts writing a diary, with his thoughts and memories. But, by doing that, he is committing a crime: Whether he wrote DOWN WITH BIG BROTHER, or whether he refrained from writing it, made no difference. Whether he went on with the diary, or whether he did not go on with it, made no difference. The Thought Police would get him just the same. He had committed—would still have committed, even if he had never set pen to paper—the essential crime that contained all others in itself. Thoughtcrime, they called it. Thoughtcrime was not a thing that could be concealed for ever. You might dodge successfully for a while, even for years, but sooner or later they were bound to get you”. (Nineteen Eighty-four, I.1)

He seems defeated by the present, but when he meets Julia his fatalism starts to fall and he founds the only reason to live, to trust in the defeat of the Party, and to hazard his life for a free life with Julia and without the Party.


Winston is clearly established from the beginning as an unheroic figure; he is thin and frail, on the way to middle age, and has a leg ulcer (we later discover that he has false teeth and is subject to coughing fits). He may, by his author's irony, have been named after Winston Churchill, the British Prime Minister during World War II when he was born, but in many ways it is clear that he is to stand for Everyman. He is presented as a man from an earlier age, old enough to have a vague memory of the distant world when he was a boy and to respond to objects from an earlier era (the " smooth creamy pages " of the diary, the nib-pen which he feels the diary deserves, and the " soft rainwatery glass " of the coral paperweight) . His only memory of unselfish and devoted love from one human being to another comes from his childhood, and the culture on which the world of his childhood was based is so far removed from the one in which he now lives that when he dreams of Julia tearing off her clothes in an act of sexual (and therefore political) defiance, he wakes up with the word "Shakespeare" on his lips. Because Orwell wants to show him as a representative as well as an individual, it is important that, for example, Winston is shown genuinely to respond to the Two-Minute Hate and not as essentially different in this respect from other Party members, as would happen if he were shown from the beginning of the novel as very strong-minded or with his own clearly formed political ideas. At the beginning, Winston's rebellion consists mainly of a dislike of the physical dullness of the world in which he lives and a vague feeling that things are not as they should be, and his diary enables him to express his unease without having to formulate the principles which he feels Ingsoc has violated. His acts of rebellion against the society in which he lives (buying and writing in the diary, having an affair with Julia, visiting the prole area of the city, renting the room from Charrington, and - the most openly political - making contact with O'Brien) are, in the last analysis, less important than the rebellion of mind and feeling from which they all spring, and it is for this that he is punished. As he himself reflects in the first chapter : " Only the Thought Police mattered." His contact with Julia leads him to put into words ideas critical of the society in which they live, which before had been little more than vague feelings of unease - " the mute protest in your own bones ", as he describes it - even if she hardly listens to him when he explains these ideas to her and does not understand their significance, as when he tells her he has proof of official falsification of the news about Jones, Aaronson and Rutherford. Knowing Julia makes him feel that he is no longer, in the words of the original working title, " The Last Man in Europe ", but also makes him realize clearly that he was doomed from the moment he started writing in the diary. So an act of madness such as renting the room above Charrington's shop and continuing to meet in it (in direct contradiction of Julia's dictum that no meeting-place is safe more than twice) can be seen as an attempt to make the most of the moment before the inevitable blow falls, rather than a seriously-held hope that he can escape punishment for such a flagrant offence. His last words to Julia in the moment before the Thought Police arrest them are : " We are the dead. "

His earlier impression of O'Brien as a man of intelligence who has the same doubts about Ingsoc as himself, and the conspiratorial feeling that this creates, are so strong that he trusts O'Brien without question. Both before his arrest and when imprisoned, this trust mirrors something of the emotional dependence which a loyal member of Ingsoc should feel for Big Brother, so that in a sense O'Brien's purpose in their interviews in Miniluv is to turn Winston's love for himself into love for Big Brother. One of Orwell's most important points is that mere obedience is not enough : Winston must achieve a moment of genuine love for Big Brother, just as earlier he achieved a moment of genuine hate for Big Brother's enemy. In order to feel this love Winston has to reject, and to admit to himself that he has rejected, all feelings of love and loyalty to anyone else. In the early stages of his time in Miniluv, although he suffers degradation, torture and humiliation, there is still some integrity inside him. But finally, threatened with what is for him the worst thing in the world, he betrays Julia by begging for her to suffer in his place, and by betraying her he betrays himself. After this, as he himself reflects, something is killed in his own heart : " burnt out, cauterized out ". He has lost something vital to himself and is a shell of a man, no longer any possible threat to the State or to anyone else.





She has dark eyes and hair, and she’s very sensual and athletic. Like Winston, Julia is against the Party, but she has a different personality from his: she’s very pragmatic. She lives “hic et nunc” (here and now), and tries to live a good present. She des not worry about their biggest problems, and tries to get pleasure in the present shacking up the Party, that means cheating it by small crimes.

In fact she is an active member, and works as a mechanic in the Fiction department of the Ministry of Truth. She also attends a prude league against sexuality: the Party considers it only related with reproduction. But Julia does not agree, and “Unlike Winston, she had grasped the inner meaning of the Party’s sexual puritanism. It was not merely that the sex instinct created a world of its own which was outside the Party’s control and which therefore had to be destroyed if possible. What was more important was that sexual privation induced hysteria, which was desirable because it could be transformed into war-fever and leader-worship. The way she put it was: ‘When you make love you’re using up energy; and afterwards you feel happy and don’t give a damn for anything. They can’t bear you to feel like that. They want you to be bursting with energy all the time. All this marching up and down and cheering and waving flags is simply sex gone sour. If you’re happy inside yourself, why should you get excited about Big Brother and the Three-Year Plans and the Two Minutes Hate and all the rest of their bloody rot?’ That was very true, he thought. There was a direct intimate connexion between chastity and political orthodoxy. For how could the fear, the hatred, and the lunatic credulity which the Party needed in its members be kept at the right pitch, except by bottling down some powerful instinct and using it as a driving force? The sex impulse was dangerous to the Party, and the Party had turned it to account.” (Nineteen Eighty-four, II.2)  

“The young, strong body, now helpless in sleep, awoke in him a pitying, protecting feeling. But the mindless tenderness that he had felt under the hazel tree, while the thrush was singing, had not quite come back. He pulled the overalls aside and studied her smooth white flank. In the old days, he thought, a man looked at a girl’s body and saw that it was desirable, and that was the end of the story. But you could not have pure love or pure lust nowadays. No emotion was pure, because everything was mixed up with fear and hatred. Their embrace had been a battle, the climax a victory. It was a blow struck against the Party. It was a political act.”  (Nineteen Eighty-four, II.2)    


Julia is younger than Winston and does not have his memories of the world before Ingsoc changed it. Her rebellion is more instinctive and immediate than his, and she is able to live within the State's system because she has stronger feelings of self-preservation and much greater self-confidence. She is not at all interested in the theoretical basis of rebellion; she starts to listen dutifully to Winston reading " the book " but soon goes to sleep. She is, however, much better than Winston not only at practical arrangements (for making contact, hiding signs of their meetings, etc) but also at understanding instinctively the underlying reasons for some of the Party's policies, particularly those connected with sexual matters. She understands that the reason for the Party's sexual puritanism is that by making the sexual act either a political duty between husband and wife (as it was for Katherine) or - for a man - a furtive and joyless encounter with a prole prostitute, the Party can use sexual frustration and the resulting hysteria for its own purposes. Therefore any enjoyable act of lovemaking freely entered into by two Party members (as in the first sexual contact between Winston and Julia before there is any emotional contact between them at all) is in itself a political act. Winston begins as a rebel with his mind and feelings and progresses to physical acts of rebellion via Julia's influence. She has been a rebel with her body all her adult life and has learned to survive in ways Winston does not have the capacity for, but both of them believe that " they [the State, in the form of the Thought Police " can't get inside you ", and both are proved wrong.




During the “Two minutes of hate” Winston notes a man, and immediately believes that he is a member of Broherhood, an organization against B.B. The man is named O’Brien. But Winston is wrong: he is a member of the Inner Party. A very mysterious person. He’s powerful and his intelligence is superhuman: in fact he often guesses words and sentences before that Winston spells them. He got in touch with him because Charrington, the owner of the secondhand store in the proles’ district where Winston bought his diary, is a member of the Toughtpolice: he arrested them and sent to jail, where O’Brien directed tortures against Winston for converting him to the crazy dogmas of the Party through Newspeak.

"The purpose of Newspeak was not only to provide a medium of expression for the world-view and mental habits proper to the devotees of Ingsoc, but to make all other modes of thought impossible." (Nineteen Eighty-four, Appendix)

Here are some sentences that O’Brien tells Winston while he is torturing him:

"There will be no curiosity, no enjoyment of the process of life. All competing pleasures will be destroyed. But always —do not forget this, Winston —always there will be the intoxication of power, constantly increasing and constantly growing subtler. Always, at every moment, there will be the thrill of victory, the sensation of trampling on an enemy who is helpless. If you want a picture of the future, imagine a boot stamping on a human face —for ever."  (Nineteen Eighty-four, III.3)

"Always we shall have the heretic here at our mercy, screaming with pain, broken up, contemptible —and in the end utterly penitent, saved from himself, crawling to our feet of his own accord. That is the world that we are preparing, Winston."  (Nineteen Eighty-four, III.3)

"We shall abolish the orgasm. Our neurologists are at work upon it now. There will be no loyalty, except loyalty towards the Party. There will be no love, except the love of Big Brother. There will be no laughter, except the laugh of triumph over a defeated enemy. There will be no art, no literature, no science."  (Nineteen Eighty-four, III.3)

"If you are a man, Winston, you are the last man. Your kind is extinct; we are the inheritors. Do you understand that you are alone? You are outside history, you are non-existant."  (Nineteen Eighty-four, III.3)

“ 'You asked me once,' said O'Brien, 'what was in Room 101. I told you that you knew the answer already. Everyone knows it. The thing that is in Room 101 is the worst thing in the world’.”  (Nineteen Eighty-four, III.5)

"Somehow you will fail. Something will defeat you. Life will defeat you."  (Nineteen Eighty-four, III.3)

O’Brien seems also to be crazy, for his behaviour and for some particular points he says. I think that he could be considered the symbol of dictatorship’s madness, and his thought, his work can be considered the extreme trial to have a sort of individual liberation, a redemption in such a society.

All dictatorships are based on the individual liberation of the elite forming the ruling oligarchy, a “redemption” that can be obtained only by means of the annihilation of other innocent men. Ingsoc does this, but the worst feature of this dystopian world is that people do not have  anymore the possibility to fight the dictatorship because they can’t know, they can’t think. Ingsoc makes them blind, and paradoxically makes them happy. Happy to love the Big Brother, that is what Winston, defeated, will think at the end of the book:

"But it was all right, everything was all right, the struggle was finished. He had won the victory over himself. He loved Big Brother."  (Nineteen Eighty-four, III.6)  


The secondary characters in the novel are sketched in more lightly. Perhaps the most interesting, and potentially the most complex, is O'Brien. On his first appearance Orwell, through Winston, points up two contrasting strands in his character: a coarse brutality, emphasized by his physical appearance, and the delicacy of gesture which Orwell compares to that of an eighteenth-century nobleman. It is the combination of these qualities which is so dangerous for Winston; O'Brien has the sensitivity to be aware of Winston's secret disloyalty to the State, and t he force and ability to indict pain by which he makes Winston suffer for it. He works on Winston in Miniluv with intelligent and fanatical devotion until Winston can be released back into society, cured for ever of the infection in his mind (as O'Brien sees it) which prevents him from loving Big Brother. O'Brien is an example of the type of intellectual from whom Orwell feared the worst : he would use his energy and intelligence to preserve and support a dictatorship whose sole aim was to keep power.


Big Brother


Though he does not necessarily exist, he can certainly be called a character in this novel. Omnipresent, on posters everywhere and stamped on the coins in your pocket, "BIG BROTHER IS WATCHING YOU." Big Brother, theoretically one of the original founders of the Party and the Revolution, has never been seen by anyone, and his birthdate is unknown. He is a creation of the Party, the human face it chooses to put on its achievements so as to more easily appeal to people's devotion. Infallible, glorious, immortal, Big Brother is a symbol whose words are in fact created, ironically, by persons such as Winston working in the Ministry of Truth and "rewriting" Big Brother's speeches. Yet he is worshipped by the very people who create him, called a "savior" and prayed to. Big Brother, the mysterious all-seeing, all-knowing leader of the totalitarian society is a god-like icon to the citizens he rules. He is never seen in person, just staring out of posters and telescreens, looking stern as the caption beneath his image warns “Big Brother Is Watching You.” Big Brother demands obedience and devotion of Oceania’s citizens; in fact, he insists that they love him more than they love anyone else, even their own families. At the same time, he inspires fear and paranoia. His loyal followers are quick to betray anyone who seems to be...

Big Brother is not a real person, nobody sees Big Brother in person. Orwell had several things in mind when he created Big Brother. He was certainly thinking of Russian leader Joseph Stalin; the pictures of Big Brother even look like him. He was also thinking of Nazi leader Adolph Hitler and Spanish dictator Francisco Franco. Big Brother stands for dictators everywhere. Orwell may have been thinking about figures in certain religious faiths when he drew Big Brother. To Inner Party members, Big Brother is a leader, a bogeyman they can use to scare the people, and their authorisation for doing whatever they want. If anybody asks, they can say they are under orders from Big Brother. For the unthinking proles, Big Brother is a distant authority figure. For Winston, Big Brother is an inspiration. Big Brother excites and energises Winston, who hates him. He is also fascinated by Big Brother and drawn to him in some of the same ways that he is drawn to O'Brien, developing a love-hate response to both of them that leads to his downfall.




The proles make up about 81% of the population of Oceania. The Party itself is only interested in their labour, because the proles are mainly employed in industry and on farms. Without their labour, Oceania would break down. Despite this fact, the Party completely ignores this social caste. The curious thing about this behaviour is that the Party calls itself socialist, and generally socialism (at least in the beginning and middle of this century) is a movement of the proletariat. So one could say that the Party abuses the word "Ingsoc". Orwell again had pointed at another regime, the Nazis, who had put "socialism" into their name. One of the main phrases of the Party is "Proles and animals are free". In Oceania, the proles live in very desolate and poor quarters. Compared with the districts where the members of the Party live, there are far fewer telescreens, and policemen. And as long as the proles don't commit crimes (crimes in our sense, not in the sense of the party - Thoughtcrime) they don't have any contact with the state. Therefore in the districts of the proletarians one can find things that are abolished and forbidden to Party members. For example, old books, old furniture, prostitution and alcohol (mainly beer) Except "Victory Gin" all of these things are not available to Party members. The proletarians don't participate in the technological development. They live like they used to do many years ago. To my mind, the Party ignores the Proles because they pose no danger to their rule. The working class is too uneducated and too unorganised to pose any real threat. So there is not really a need to change the political attitudes of this class.


Considering Winston's belief that " if there is hope, it lies in the proles ", a theme which runs through the novel and which we are to understand as coming from Orwell himself, the proles play very little part in the novel. In some cases, like that of the woman singing as she hangs out her washing, they are merely in the background to point a contrast with the lives and behaviour of the members of the Party. When Winston makes an extended visit to the prole quarter and attempts to ask the old man in the pub about his memories of his youth, the response is confused and uninformative. Orwell describes Winston's hopes for the proles as " a mystical truth and a palpable absurdity " , and from the evidence in the novel, the latter part of the phrase is the more accurate description. Yet Winston needs to feel that there is some hope somewhere, and certainly there is none in the harsh world of fear and drabness in which Party members live. So the proles become for him not just a romantic hope for the future, but the only hope of all. In fact, the novel shows no hope, and certainly not for Winston. He betrays Julia and his feelings for her, and thus betrays an innermost part of himself which, once lost, can never be recovered : his personal emotions and his individual integrity, which, for Orwell, should be out of the reach of any powers of the State. Winston is no more heroic under the pressure of Mintluv than he was earlier. At the end he is seen in the Chestnut Tree cafe, where he himself had watched other men who had been broken by the State. Here he finally admits to himself that all rebellion is over and the struggle is finished. Orwell's warning is clear : Winston, with all the force of the State against him, comes not merely to accept that he is powerless against it, but actively to welcome his own defeat : he loves Big Brother.




Tom Parsons


Winston's neighbor and co-worker at the Ministry of Truth, is a heavy, sweaty fellow whom Winston despises for his unthinking acceptance of everything the Party tells him. Parsons is active in his community groups, and appears to truly believe Party claims and doctrine; in that respect Winston assumes Parsons will never be vaporized. But towards the end of the novel, Parsons appears in the Ministry of Love, much to Winston's surprise; he has been denounced by his children.


It is more of a surprise when Parsons also appears as a prisoner in Miniluv. Winston had assumed that his limited intelligence combined with his devoted orthodoxy of political views would keep him safe as a valued worker for the Party, but he is doubly betrayed - by his unconscious mind and by the daughter whose skill at discovering traitors he was so proud of- and he suffers the same fate as the others. The image has been built up of a world where no one is to be trusted. People who seem innocent of all deceit, like the old prole junk-shopkeeper, turn out to be members of the Thought Police and are most dangerous because they were never suspected. Winston's visits to the prole quarter, which he thought (once the patrols were avoided) to be a place of safety, prove fatal to him and to Julia.



Mrs. Parsons


The wife of Tom Parsons, lives in a neighboring flat to Winston's. She is a tired, dusty woman and mother of two hellions who are bound to denounce her someday. At the beginning of the novel, she knocks on Winston's door to ask him to help her unclog the kitchen sink.




He is a fellow-worker in the Records Department with Winston. He has no especial importance, though he seems hostile and Winston assumes that they are given some of the same assignments to work on.




He is a poet who works in the Records Department rewriting politically or ideologically objectionable Oldspeak poems. By the end of the novel, he ends up in prison, encountering Winston there shortly before being sent to Room 101.




He is a philologist working on the Eleventh Edition of the Newspeak Dictionary, and the closest to a friend that Winston has, because (although he dislikes Winston) they can have interesting conversations. Penetrating, intelligent, incisive, Syme is vaporized despite his fanatical devotion to the Party.


Syme's intellectual powers have also been corrupted by the State, although his interests are more academic and he does not possess O'Brien's force. Yet he still sees too clearly and speaks too plainly for his own safety, and, as Winston realizes at an early stage, is marked down for vapourization.



Winston's wife, never appears directly in the book as she and Winston have separated after a childless marriage. She is notable in her marked aversion to sex, which soured the marriage although it was the proper Party attitude. Her persistence despite her aversion in trying to carry out "their duty to the Party" makes it unbearable for Winston, who at one point confesses to Julia that he was once tempted to murder Katharine.


Mr. Charrington


He is the owner of the antique shop where Winston first buys his diary, then a glass paperweight, and later returns to rent the upstairs room for his meetings with Julia. Mr. Charrington introduces Winston to the rhyme of the church bells, which becomes a symbol throughout the book. In the end, however, Charrington turns out to be an agent of the Thought Police; his appearance at Winston's arrest is much changed, so much so that it would seem impossible (his entire physique is different).




He is O'Brien's servant, who leads Winston and Julia in to O'Brien and then comes in to sit in on their meeting with him. When he is dismissed, he is told to take a good look at their faces, as he might be seeing them again but O'Brien might not. (As it turns out, the exact opposite is true, in Winston's case at least.)



 Symbols in 1984

In "Nineteen Eighty-Four" Orwell draws a picture of a totalitarian future. It is a dystopia (or alternatively kakotopia) which is a fictional society, usually portrayed as existing in a future.  


Although the action takes place in the future, there are a couple of elements and symbols taken from the present and past. So, for example, Emmanuel Goldstein, the main enemy of Oceania, is, as one can see from the name, a Jew. Orwell draws a link to other totalitarian systems of our century, like the Nazis and the Communists, who had anti-Semitic ideas, and who used Jews as so-called scapegoats, who were responsible for all bad and evil things in the country. This fact also shows that totalitarian systems want to arbitrate their perfection. Emmanuel Goldstein somehow also stands for Trotsky, a leader of the Revolution, who was later declared an enemy.


Another symbol that can be found in Nineteen Eighty-Four is the fact that Orwell divides the fictional superstates in the book according to the division that can be found during the Cold War. So Oceania stands for the United States of America , Eurasia for Russia and Eastasia for China. The fact that the two socialist countries Eastasia and Eurasia (in our case Russia and China) are at war with each other, corresponds to our history (Usuri river).


Other, non-historical symbols can be found. One of these symbols is the paperweight that Winston buys in the old junk-shop. It stands for the fragile little world that Winston and Julia have made for each other. They are the coral inside of it. As Orwell wrote: "It is a little chunk of history, that they have forgotten to alter".


The "Golden Country" is another symbol. It stands for the old European pastoral landscape. The place where Winston and Julia meet for the first time to make love to each other, is exactly like the "Golden Country" of Winston dreams.




The most important characters in the book are Winston, Julia and O`Brien. In our opinion, these three characters are the delegates of the novel. They reflect the society from different views. Winston has a kind of characteristic which is contradiction. The mutually exclusive and interdependent relationship exists in the development of every matter. The same goes for the society which is a dystopia in 1984. People are constricted so much by the society that their human nature is more or less wrenched. This story also shows the danger of a world in which the government has too much control.  The novel shows how the government controls its people, eliminating their individuality and the essence of everything that makes a human a human. Julia is the very kind of person who is the simplest of the society. They are just concerned about themselves, however, O’brien has the ability to keep the society going.


O’Brien must be a very important Party member and he has the duty to make the country go on. In his opinion, when his citizens are in happy and rich lives, their thoughts will grow and the country will be in danger so it is necessary to make people believe they are in wars and to use inhumanity inquisition to make them love Big Brother.  O’Brien is not a bad man for he just wants to control the country, and this is the only way he can think of. Also, neither Julia and Winton are bad. No one exactly have faults. The reason why Winton is defeated is only that he cannot overcome his disadvantages. He sees them clearly and so does O’Brien. On the other hand, Big Brother is never defeated; that is because he doesn’t have any mistakes or disadvantages, though he might be, they are corrected before they are seen.


No one is defeated by others, but only by himself.


George Orwell wrote the book in 1948 and he named it 1984 maybe he was afraid that things

might go wrong in the future and he wanted the people living in the future to be alert.


After analyzing these characters in 1984, we feel that we not only finally more or less understand the novel, but also understand something of the reality.


 By Luigi,  Song Danwen, and  Bai Chao


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